What is the major difference between large and small systems? At small length-scales the dynamics is dominated by fluctuations, whereas at large scales fluctuations are irrelevant. Therefore, any thermodynamically consistent description of quantum systems necessitates a thorough understanding of the nature and consequences of fluctuations. In this chapter, we outline two closely related fields of research that are commonly considered separately – fluctuation forces and fluctuation theorems. Focusing on the main gist of these exciting and vivid fields of modern research, we seek to provide a instructive entry point for both communities of researchers interested in learning about the other.